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Buddhist Dictionary of Sanskrit - Tibetan - Chinese - Japanese - Vietnamese - Korean - Pali - English Buddhism Terms

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Additional Reference Material for Entries:

The reference material for each entry includes the following sections:

CH lists one or more Chinese equivalents, giving the romanization in pinyin followed by the characters.

SKT lists one or more Sanskrit equivalents.

PALI lists one or more Pali equivalents.

REF References to the topic which can be found in Buddhist Text Translation Society publications.

NOTES:

While general terms in English are often given in the plural, e.g. demons, they are sometimes expressed in Sanskrit or Pali using the singular or stem form. Some Sanskrit and Pali plurals are cited in stem form and others are not.

Not every Sanskrit, Pali, or Chinese citation is the exact equivalent of the English term, but is given with the intention of providing the closest relevant term in those languages.

A

abbot 方丈

CH fang zhang 方丈, zhu chi 住持

SKT vihārasvāmin

Abhidharma 阿毗達摩

CH a bi da mo 阿毗達摩, lun

SKT abbidharma

PALI abbidhamma

REF FAS-PII 97-108.

Amitābha (Buddha) 陀] ([[佛)

CH a mi to fo 陀] ([[佛) (Jap. 'amida')

SKT amitābha (amitāyus)

REF AS 10-11, 20; UW 28-29, 131-135,215-217; SM IV 53; SM V 10-11.

Amitābha Sutra 陀][[經

CH (fo shuo) a mi to jing (說) 陀][[經

SKT

  • sukhāvatī-vyūhasūtra

REF AS.

Ānanda (Venerable) ()

CH a nan (zun zhe) ()

SKT ānanda

PALI ānanda

REF FAS-PI (S[[eventh]] Door, ms.); AS 91-92; SS I 24-26; DFS II 124; DFS VIII 1500-1510.

Anuttara-Samyak-Saṃbodhi 菩提

CH a nou duo luo san miao san pu ti 菩提, wu shang zheng deng zheng jue

SKT Anuttarasamyak-Saṃbodhi

PALI Anuttarasammā-Sambodhi

REF FAS Ch16, 22; DFS IV 519; DFS VII 1305.

Arhat 阿羅漢

CH a luo han 阿羅漢

SKT arhat, arhant, arhanta

PALI arahat

REF DFS VII 1371-2, 1449-50; DFS X 52; TT 47; EDR II 57-58; FAS Ch16 28-31; SS I 107-109; AS 66; VBS

  1. 196 4-5.

Asaṅga (Bodhisattva) (菩薩)

CH wu zhao

SKT asaṅga

REF HD 9-12; UW 1-3.

asaṅkhyeya / asaṃkhyeya

CH a seng qi

SKT asaṅkhyeya, asaṃkhyeya

PALI asankheyya

asura 阿修羅

CH a xiu luo 阿修羅

SKT asura

PALI asura

REF TD 42-44; SS IV 239-242, V 135, VII 239-243; TT 47, 57-58; VBS (May 1970) 34-37.

attachment 執著

CH zhi zhao 執著

SKT abhiniveśa

PALI abhinivesa

REF EDR II 131-132.

Avalokiteśvara (Bodhisattva) 觀世 (菩薩)

CH guan yin , guan shi yin 觀世, guan zi zai (pu sa) 自在 (菩薩)

SKT avalokiteśvara

avīci hell 阿鼻地獄

CH a bi di yu 阿鼻地獄, wu jian di yu 地獄

SKT avīci naraka / niraya

PALI avīci niraya

B

Baozhi (Chan Master) 寶誌 (禪師)

CH bao zhi (chan shi) 寶誌 (禪師)

REF DFS IX 1708-1710

Bhikshu 比丘

CH bi qiu 比丘

SKT bhikṣu

PALI bhikkhu

REF EDR I 166-167; FAS Ch11 106-116; FAS Ch16 30-31; SS I 63-64; SS V 148-149; DFS II 181, 345; DFS IX 1683-1685.

Bhikshuni 比丘尼

CH bi qiu ni 比丘尼

SKT bhikṣuṇī

PALI bhikkhuni

REF See refrences for Bhikshu.

blessings

CH fu , fu bao

SKT puṇya[-phala]

PALI puñña

REF S42 23-27; DFS 1080-1081; UW 77; PS 133-134, 194.

bodhi 菩提

CH pu ti 菩提

SKT bodhi

PALI bodhi

REF SS I 180-181; SS III 135-137, 196-197; FAS Ch24 63.

Bodhidharma (Patriarch) 菩提達摩 (祖師)

CH pu ti da mo (zu shi) 菩提達摩 (祖師)

SKT bodhidharma

REF VBS

  1. 169 (June, 1984), pp. 1-3, 12; PS 8-16; SS VII 54-55.

Bodhi Resolve (bringing forth) 發菩提心

CH fa pu ti xin 發菩提心

SKT bodhicittotpāda

REF “Essay on Exhortation to Bring Forth the Bodhi ResolveBTTS ms.; FAS Ch6 178-179, Ch17; EDR VIII 67-102.

Bodhisattva 菩薩

CH pu sa 菩薩, pu ti sa duo 菩提

SKT Bodhisattva

PALI bodhisatta

REF HS 95-97, DFS II 301-2; DS 5-6; TD 27-29; HD 13; EDR II 70-72; UW 25-26; FAS-PI 51-54; FAS Ch9 44-45; FAS Ch11 39; SS I 107; SS VI 48-55; AS 98-99.

bowing 禮拜

CH bai , li bai 禮拜, ding li 頂禮

SKT vandana

PALI vandana

REF WM 38-39; SV 57; UW 18-25; PDSSeven Types of Bowing: What Happens When People Bow”; WOH; TS.

Brahma Net Sutra 梵網經

CH fan wang jing 梵網經 (a) T. 21, (b) T. 1484

SKT Brahmajāla-sūtra (not extant)

PALI Brahmajāla-sutta (not extant)

REF (b) BNS 2 vols.

Budai (Venerable) 布袋 (和尚)

CH bu dai (he shang) 布袋 (和尚)

Buddha

CH fo , fo tuo 陀], fo tuo ye [[佛陀][[耶

SKT Buddha

PALI Buddha

REF LY I 13, DFS VI 1124-5, 1131; TD 26-27; VS 141-142; DFS Ch2, 8,9; UW 25-26; FAS Ch24 20-22ff, 58-60; FAS-PI 149-150, 155; FAS Ch7 3-5, 14-15, 33-34; SS II 166-167; AS 2-5.

Buddhaland 佛土

CH fo du 佛土

SKT Buddhakṣetra

PALI Buddhakhetta

Buddha-nature 佛性

CH fo xing 佛性

SKT Buddhatā, Buddhabhāva, Buddhatva

PALI Buddhatā, Buddhabhāva, Buddhatta

REF SS IV 108ff; DFS V (Ch4 'Belief and Understanding'); NS.

Buddhism / Buddha Dharma 佛教 / 佛法

CH fo jiao 佛教, fo fa 佛法

SKT Buddha Dharma

PALI Buddhadhamma

REF FAS Ch9 93; “The Kennedys Request a Lecture,” VBS, May 1970, 30-38; FAS PII 129; PS 121.

Buddhist sects 宗派

CH zong pai 宗派

C

causation 因緣

CH yin yuan 因緣

SKT betu-pratyaya

PALI betu-paccaya

REF DFS V 936-939; CL II 27 (=SPV Ch5); FHS 1 22-32 (The Buddha Speaks the Sutra on Cause and Effect); BRF 52; SPV 128-9; EDR II 123, 130-131 (Nāgārjuna); WM 41, 47-49; SS VII; TT 33-35, 131 par 1; SM I 95; EDR VI 215; FAS Ch7 11; FAS Ch22 “Second Ground”; SS II 47 (finger pointing at the moon), 112 (par 2); AS 30.

certification / 明 /

CH zheng , zheng ming 明, zheng de

SKT prāpti sakṣat-kṛti

Changren (Chan Master) 常仁 (禪師)

CH chang ren (chan shi) 常仁 (禪師)

REF RL I; VBS

  1. 201, 15; WM 14-41.

Changzhi (Chan Master) 常智 (禪師)

CH chang zhi (chan shi) 常智 (禪師)

Chan School 禪宗

CH chan zong 禪宗

REF LY II 14-17; WM 70-73; SE 65-70.

compassion 慈悲

CH ci bei 慈悲

SKT maitrī, karuṇā

PALI mettā, karuṇā

REF AS7-8.

Consciousness-Only School 唯識宗

CH wei shi zong 唯識宗

SKT vijñānavāda (yogācāra)

REF HD; FAS-PII(2) 79- 89; “The Transformation of Consciousness into Wisdom: the Path of the Bodhisattva according to the Cheng Weishi Lun, VBS

  1. 176, 177, 178 (Jan.-Mar. 1985).

cosmology 宇宙論

CH yu zhou lun 宇宙論

REF FAS Ch5; SPV 53-60, 139-143.

creation (world and humans)

CH sheng , sheng zao

SKT jāti

PALI jāti

REF TD; TT51-53, 149-151; FAS Ch24 116-120; SS IV 13 ff; Nirvana Sutra lecture, 8-18-85; VBS

  1. 95, 25-28.

cultivation 修行

CH xiu xing 修行

SKT caryā, bhāvanā

PALI cariya, bhāvanā

REF EDR VII 152-153; FAS Ch15 30ff; FAS Ch5-6 89-90; TT 43.

D

Daosheng (Venerable) 道生 (法師)

CH dao sheng (fa shi) 道生 (法師)

REF WM 71-73, VS 151-152; FAS-PII(2) 145-149.

demons

CH mo , mo luo

SKT māra

PALI māra

REF SS I 175 SS VIII, UW 122-123, 206-207; TT 66, Unpublished lecture by Ven. Master Hua, July 29, 1985, Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma III 107-113; Lethcoe, Nancy, “Māra, Buddhas, and Bodhisattvas.” VBS

  1. 14 (May, 1971) 22-25; #16 (July, 1971) 36-38; #18 (Sept., 1971) 23-26.

Devadatta

CH ti po da duo

SKT Devadatta

PALI Devadatta

REF DFS X (Ch 1 2 ”Devadatta“); FAS-PII(3) 78-79; VBS

  1. 196 4-5; VBS #197 4-5.

dhāraṇī 陀][[羅

CH tuo luo ni 陀][[羅

SKT dhāraṇī

REF DS 1, 73.

Dhāraṇī Sutra 陀][[羅

CH tuo luo ni jing 陀][[羅

SKT dhāraṇī-sūtra

REF DS.

Dharma / dharma

CH fa

SKT dharma

PALI dhamma

REF FAS-PII(1) 97-99; FAS PII(2) 100; FAS Ch15 1-2 VBS

  1. 179 6-7; DFS I 14ff 28,30,31,7,8; DFS II 132; DFS I 39; HS 51; HD 26.

Dharma door 法門

CH fa men 法門

SKT dharma-mukha dharma-paryāya

PALI dhamma-pariyāya

Dharma-Ending Age

CH mo fa shi dai

SKT saddharma-vipralopa-kāla, saddharmasya antardhāna-kāla-samaya

PALI saddhammassa-antaradhāna

REF BRF 17-19; SE 62-64; UW 135; SS I xiv-xvi; VBS

  1. 152 (Jan. 1983) ”Buddha Speaks the Surra of Changes to Come“ (T. 395).

Dharma Flower (Lotus) Sutra 法華經

CH fa hua jing 法華經, miao fa lian hua jing, 妙 T. 262.

SKT saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra

REF DFS.

Dharma Master 法師

CH fa shi 法師

SKT dharma-bhāṇaka, dharma-kathika, upādhyāya

PALI dhamma-bhāṇaka, dhamma-kathika, upajjhāya

REF DFS 166.

Dharma-protector

CH hu fa

SKT dharma-pāla

PALI dhamma-pāla

Dharma Realm 法界

CH fa jie 法界

SKT dharma-dhātu

PALI dhamma-dhātu

REF TD 57-61; EDR I 218.

Dharma transmission

CH chuan fa

E

Earth Store (Bodhisattva) 地藏 (菩薩)

CH di zang (wang) pu sa 地藏 (王) 菩薩

SKT kṣitigarbha

REF SPV, TT 136.

Eight Consciousnesses 八識

CH ba shi 八識

SKT aṣṭa-vijñānāni

REF HD 30-33; EDR IV 26-28; VBS

  1. 331-342 (Dec. 1997-Nov. 1998) ”Verses Delineating the Eight Consciousnesses.“

Eighteen Realm 十八界

CH shi ba jie 十八界

SKT aṣṭādaśa-dhātavaḥ

PALI aṭṭhārasa-dhātuyo

REF HD 31; HS 56-59; PS 334-335.

Eightfold Division of Ghost and Spirits 天龍

CH tian long ba bu 天龍, ba bu zhong 眾, long sheng ba bu

SKT devanāgayakṣa-gandharvāsuragaruḍakinnara-mahoraga

REF DFS IV 562, VII 1233-1235, 1254-1257, IX 1675-1678.

Eightfold Path 八正

CH ba zheng dao 八正, ba sheng dao

SKT (ārya) aṣṭāṅgika-mārga

PALI (ariyo) aṭṭangika-maggo

REF HS 87-88, DFS IV 663-670; AS 125-128.

Eight Winds 八風

CH ba feng 八風

REF HS 18-20; FAS Ch26 II 158.

Eighty-eight Deluded Viewpoints 十八品見惑

CH ba shi ba pin jian huo 十八品見惑, ba shi ba pin jian fen 十八品見分

SKT darśana-heya

REF HS 123-124; S42 8.

Eighty-four Thousand Dharma-Doors 八萬四千法門

CH ba wan si qian fa men 八萬四千法門

SKT catvāry-aśītidharma-skandhasahasrāṇi

PALI caturāsīti sahassāni dhammā

REF TT 107-108.

Eighty-one Cognitive Delusions 一品思惑

CH ba shi yi pin si huo 一品思惑

SKT bhāvanā-mārga-prahātavya-kleśa, bhāvanā-heya

REF HS 123-124.

Eleven Benefita from Making Images of Buddhas 造像一種功德

CH zao xiang shi yi zhong gong de 造像一種功德

emptiness

CH kong 空, shun ruo duo 舜

SKT śūnyatā

PALI suññatā

REF HS 21-23, 57; FAS-PII(2) 93-94, 102, 106; FAS PII(3) 68 69; PS Ch2.

Enlightenment

CH wu 悟, jue wu 覺悟, kai wu 開悟

SKT bodhi

PALI bodhi

REF SS I 38-39; SS VI 48-55; DFS IV 519; EDR I 96; FAS-VP 40; FAS-PII(1) 232-234.

Upaya Paramita - Expedient Dharma - Skillful Means

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expedient Dharmas 方便法

CH fang bian fa 方便法, quan qiao fang bian 權巧方便

SKT upāya-kuśala / upāya-kauśalya

PALI upāya-kosalla

REF EDR V 79-80, 220-221; FAS Ch15 46ff (Dwelling in the Endowment of Skill-in-Means); SS V 194.

Snippet from Wikipedia: Upaya

In Buddhism, upaya (Sanskrit: उपाय, upāya, expedient means, pedagogy) is an aspect of guidance along the Buddhist paths to liberation where a conscious, voluntary action "is driven by an incomplete reasoning" about its direction. Upaya is often used with kaushalya (कौशल्य, "cleverness"), upaya-kaushalya meaning "skill in means".

Upaya-kaushalya is a concept emphasizing that practitioners may use their own specific methods or techniques that fit the situation in order to gain enlightenment. The implication is that even if a technique, view, etc., is not ultimately "true" in the highest sense, it may still be an expedient practice to perform or view to hold; i.e., it may bring the practitioner closer to the true realization in a similar way. The exercise of skill to which it refers, the ability to adapt one's message to the audience, is of enormous importance in the Pali Canon.

The Digital Dictionary of Buddhism notes that rendering the Chinese term fāngbiàn into English as 'skillful' or as 'expedient' is often difficult, because the connotations shift according to the context as (1) the teaching being something to marvel at — the fact that the Buddha can present these difficult truths in everyday language (thus, skillful), yet that (2) they are teachings of a lower order as compared to the ultimate truth, and are far removed from reflecting reality, and are a kind of 'stopgap' measure (thus, expedient).

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F

Faith

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faith

CH xin 信

SKT śraddhā

PALI saddhā

REF WM 53-54; FAS-PI 184; FAS-PII(1) 139-140; FAS Ch11 184, Ch22 4-6; AS 24; HD 44.

filial piety (respect for all) 孝 / 孝

CH xiao 孝, xiao dao

REF FHS I 1,8,63,65,68; FHS II 17,30, 81-109; SPV 9, 18-20, 22-23, 80,88, 103-4; UW 115-116; BNS 6O.

Five Contemplations when Eating 存五

CH shi cun wu guan 存五

REF SV 54-56.

Five Desires 五欲

CH wu yu 五欲

SKT pañca-kāma-guṇāḥ

PALI pañca-kāma-guṇā

REF S42 47, 48-54, 57, 62-63, 61; FAS Ch11 99.

Five Eyes 五眼

CH wu yan 五眼

SKT pañca-cakṣus

PALI pañca-cakkhūni

REF SPV 69-70; SM II 89-90; SM III 35, 84-85; VS 106-107, 122-123; AS 6-7.

Five Moral Precepts

CH wu jie 五

SKT pañca-śīlāni

PALI pañca-śīla

REF BRF 59-61; DFS II 211; DFS V 902-3; S42 75-76 (precepts); TT 58; SV 14-29; BNS I 73-97; FAS Ch26(2) 4,10,17,20, 25-26, 28.

Five Skandhas 五陰 / 五蘊

CH wu yin / wu yun 五陰 / 五蘊

SKT skandha, pañcopādāna-skandha

PALI panc'upādāna-kkhandha

FORM:

CH se / shai 色

SKT rūpa

PALI rūpa

FEELING:

CH shou 受

SKT vedanā

PALI vedanā

COGNITION:

CH xiang 想

SKT saṃjñā

PALI saññā

FORMATIONS:

CH xing

SKT saṃskārāḥ

PALI sankhārā

CONSCIOUSNESS

CH shi

SKT vijñāna

PALI vijññāṇa

REF HS 24-28, 4l-48 LY II 103-104, 223-225; SS III 4-24; SS VIII.

Five Turbidities 五濁

CH wu zhuo 五濁, wu zhuo e shi 五濁惡

SKT pañca-kasāya

PALI pañca-kasāya

REF DFS III 425; SPV 32-3; SS III 205-207; SS IV 144-151, 256-257; AS 149-150.

Five Types of Buddhist Study and Practice 五大

CH wu da zong 五大, wu jiao 五

TEACHINGS:

CH jiao zong

MORAL REGULATIONS:

CH lü zong 律宗

SKT vinaya

PALI vinaya

ESOTERIC:

CH mi zong

SKT tantra, mantrayāna, vajrayāna

MEDITATION:

CH chan zong 禪宗 [Jap. zen

SKT dhyāna

PALI jhāna

PURE LAND:

CH jing du zong 淨

REF FAS Ch26 II 113-114; WM 16-19, 70-77; RH 230-231; VBS

  1. 12 (March, 1971) 32ff; VBS #185, 186 ”Pure Land Dharma Door,“ Oct.-Nov. 1985.

Flower Adornment Sutra (大) 華嚴經

CH hua yan jing 華嚴經, da fang guang fo hua yan jing 大華嚴經

SKT Avataṃsaka-sūtra, mahāvaipulya-buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra

REF The BTTS has published the FAS in four different series: (1)FASP and FASVP, (2)FAS, (3)EDR, (4)UW. For general comments, see EDR VII 13-14; FAS-VP xv-xvi.

Four Applications of Mindfulness

CH si nian chu

SKT smṛtyupasthāna, catvāri-smṛtyupasthānāni

PALI satipaṭṭhāna

REF HS 88; VBS

  1. 11 19-24; DFS IV 608, 760ff; DFS V 940-943; FAS-PII(1) 59-65; AS 56-59.

Four Dhyānas 四禪

CH si chan 四禪, si jing lü 靜慮

SKT dhyāna, catur-dhyāna

PALI jhāna

REF SS VII 207-229; LY II 75-6; DFS IV 706ff; SPV 55-60; DFS X 5-6; TT 104-107; EDR I 225; EDR VIII 13-14; FAS-PII 29-30; FAS Ch26(2) 109-112; SS I 15.

Fourfold Assembly

CH si zhong 眾, si zhong di zi 眾弟子

SKT catasraḥ-parṣadaḥ

PALI catur-parisā

Four Formless Realms

CH si kong chu 空處, si wu se / shai jie , si wu se / shai ding chu

SKT catur-arūpyaBrahmaloka

REF SS VII 129-238; DFS IV 708; SPV 60; DFS X 6; EDR I 225; FASP II 29-30; FAS Ch26(2) 109.

Four Great Elements

CH si da

SKT mahābhūta

PALI mahābhūta

REF HD 64; SS IV 22-25, 144. 148.

Four Great Vows 弘誓

CH si hong shi yuan 弘誓

SKT catvāri-mahā-praṇidhāna

REF DFS IV 788-795; LY I 17; PS 178-182.

Four Holy Truths

CH si di 諦, si sheng di

SKT ārya-satyāni, catvāry-ārya-satyāni

PALI ariya-sacca, catur ariya-saccāni

SUFFERING:

CH ku 苦

SKT duḥkha

PALI dukkha

ORIGINATION:

CH ji 集

SKT samudaya

PALI samudaya

CESSATION:

CH mie 滅

SKT nirodha

PALI nirodha

PATH:

CH dao

SKT mārga

PALI magga

REF DFS III 504; HS 68-70. 78-84; FASP II(2) 45-47; FAS Ch8 (esp pp. 1-3 – Four Holy Truths Chapter); TD 13-14; VHS #206 6.

Four Unlimited Aspects of Mind

CH si wu liang xin

SKT catvāry-apramāṇāni, brāhma-vihāra

PALI appamaññā, Brahma-vihāra

KINDNESS:

CH ci

SKT maitrī

PALI mettā

COMPASSION:

CH bei

SKT karuṇā

PALI karuṇā

JOY:

CH xi 喜

SKT muditā

PALI muditā

EQUANIMITY:

CH she 捨

SKT upekṣā

PALI upekkhā

G

Gautama / Gotama (Buddha) 瞿曇 ()

CH ju tan (fo) 瞿曇 (), qiao da mo 喬答

SKT gautama

PALI gotama

ghosts 鬼

CH gui 鬼, e gui 餓鬼

SKT preta

PALI peta

REF SS VII 155-175, SPV 65-6; TD 50-52; HD 83-84; EDR III 26-27; PS 83; SS VII 155-176.

God 上帝 /

CH shang di 上帝, tian zhu

SKT īśvara

PALI issara

REF FAS ChI4 (lecture Oct 5-6, 1975).

gods

CH tian , tian ren 人, shen 神

SKT devāḥ, devaputrāḥ

PALI devā, devaputta

REF SPV 209-10; UW 220-224; FASP II(2) 141-144; FAS Ch11 69-72; SS VII 198-238.

gongfu (kungfu) 功夫

CH gong fu 功夫

Good and Wise Advisor 善知

CH shan zhi shi 善知

SKT kalyāṇamitra

PALI kalyāṇa-mitta

REF LYI 50-2; PS 112-114; EDR II xii-xiv, 2-3, 6-7, 83-84; FAS Ch24 42-43; PB I (intro pp:); EDR IV 113; EDR V 69-71; EDR VI 82-83; EDR VII 11, 142ff-155; “What Is a Good Advisor?” Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma VIII 75-79; VBS

  1. 198 2.

good roots 善根

CH shan gen 善根

SKT kuśala-mūlāni

PALI kusala-mūla

REF VS 50; DFS Ch3 753.

Great Compassion Mantra

CH da bei zhou 大

SKT mahākāruṇā-dhāraṇī, mahākāruṇikahṛdaya-dhāraṇī

REF TT 133; DS 30-39, 40-43, 60-66, 135ff; Great Compassion Mantra Verses; Dharma Talks in Europe 76-83.

H

Hanshan and Shide (Bodhisattvas) 寒山拾 (大士)

CH han shan shi de (da shi) 寒山拾 (大士)

REF UW 139-141; VBS

  1. 27 1, #17 37, #28 1, #60 70-73 (”Poetry of Shih-Te“ by James M. Hargett), #200 11.

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I

ignorance

CH wu ming

SKT avidyā

PALI avijjā

REF DFS III 374.

impermanence

CH wu chang

SKT anitya

PALI anicca

REF TT 110, 111 (2 verses) SS II 24-36 (text only); NS Ch. 2 Pt. 1 24-25 and lectures.

K

kalpa

CH jie 劫, jie bo 劫

SKT kalpa

PALI kappa

karma

CH ye 業

SKT karma

PALI kamma

REF FHS I 22-32 (Sutra of Cause and Effect in the Three Periods of Time); SPV 101-102; SS I 172-173; SS II 139-159.

Kumārajīva (Tripiṭaka Master) 鳩什 (法師)

CH jiu mo luo shi (san zang fa shi) 鳩什 (法師)

SKT kumārajīva

REF DFS I 57-66 VS 12-13; BNS I 36-37; AS 44-48 VBS

  1. 23 1; RHS 26-42.

L

liberating living beings 放

CH fang sheng

REF FHS I 27; DFS IX 1601-2; CL II 15, 59 (=BNS 20th minor); BNS I 162-5 FAS Ch8 76-77; RH 186-198 Hsuan Hua (Ven. Master) ”Developing our Compassion by Liberating Living Beings,“ PDS (May 1985); “To Atone for Killing Karma Liberate the Living Instead,” VBS

  1. 147 Aug. 1982) 13-17.

lineage 宗派 /

CH zong pai 宗派, fa mai

living beings 眾

CH zhong sheng, you qing 有情

SKT sattva

PALI satta

REF EDR V 136-7; Vs 40-41; SS IV 36-38; SS VI 165-180; UW 7-8; FASVP 6O-61; DFS IV 789-790.

lotus posture 雙跏趺

CH shuang jia fu zuo 雙跏趺, jie jia fu zuo, 結跏趺, lian hua zuo* 蓮花

SKT padmāsana

REF TD 63-67; FAS Ch11 127-131, 244-245; SS I 98-99; LY I 70-75; DFS IX 1716-17, 1722-1727.

love 愛 / 貪愛 / 愛欲

CH ai 愛, tan ai 貪愛, ai yu 愛欲

SKT tṛṣṇā

PALI taṇhā

REF S42 40, 48; FAS Ch9 32-34.

M

Madhyamaka / Mādhyamika ()

CH zhong guan lun (pai) ()

SKT madhyamaka[-śāstra / Mādhyamika

mahā

CH mo he

SKT mahā

PALI mahā / maha

Mahākāśyapa (Venerable) 訶迦葉 ()

CH mo he jia she (zun zhe) 訶迦葉 ()

SKT mahākāśyapa (sthavira)

PALI mahākassapa (thera)

REF AS 75-80; DFS V 869-872; DFS VI 1105-1116; EDR I 220; SS IV 198, 202; SS V 39-43; VBS

  1. 165 (Jan. 1984) 1.

Mahāmaudgalyāyana (Venerable) 訶目犍連 ()

CH mo he mu jian lian (zun zhe) 訶目犍連 ()

SKT mahāmaudgalyāyana (sthavira)

PALI mahāmoggallāna (thera)

REF DFS V 872; DFS VI 1146-1162; EDR I 220; SS V 86-89; SS VII 86-87; AS 73-75.

Mahāsattva

CH mo he sa

SKT mahāsattva

PALI mahāsatta

Mahayana and Hinayana Compared

CH (a) da cheng, (b) xiao cheng

SKT (a) mahāyāna, (b) hīnayāna

REF LY I 146-7, 150; FAS Ch3 (Mahayana); FAS-PII(1) 116-120; EDR I 198-199 (verse); SV 6-7.

Maitreya (Bodhisattva) 彌勒 (菩薩)

CH mi lei / le (pu sa) 彌勒 (菩薩)

SKT maitreya

PALI metteyya

REF DFS II 156, 351ff DFS IX 1584-87; AS 103-105; EDR VII 135; EDR VIII 19; SS V 111-119; VBS

  1. 172 10.

maṇḍala 曼陀][[羅

CH man tuo luo 曼陀][[羅

SKT maṇḍala

PALI maṇḍala

Mañjuśrī (Bodhisattva) 文殊 (菩薩) (Manjushri or Manjusri)

CH wen shu shi li (pu sa) 文殊 (菩薩)

SKT Mañjuśrī

REF DFS II 144ff; FAS Ch9 8-10; EDR I 161ff, 226-228; AS 99-103.

mantra

CH zhou 咒

SKT mantra, dhāraṇi

PALI manta

REF HS 109-110, 116; SM I 37-40; RH.

meditation 坐禪 /

CH zuo chan 坐禪, chan

SKT dhyāna, bhāvanā

PALI jhāna, bhāvanā

REF PDS (May 1985) 2 “The Chan Practice…,” TT 104ff; LYII 74ff; VBS

  1. 205ff ”Chan Talks“ series.

merit / merit and virtue 功德

CH gong de 功德

SKT puṇya, puṇya-guṇa

PALI puñña

REF PS 132-137; UW 9-10, 32, 76; TT 43.

Middle Way

CH zhong dao

SKT madhyama-pratipad

PALI Majjhima-pratipadā

REF WM 49; S42 55, 67.

mindfulness

CH nian

SKT smṛti, anusmṛti

PALI sati, anussati

REF FAS Ch22 (Treasury of Mindfulness).

moral precepts /

CH jie , jie lü

SKT śīla, śikṣāpada

PALI sīla, sikkhāpada

REF SV; BNS I & II; TT 117,132; FAS Ch16 33-35; FAS Ch11 27; FAS Ch22 15-27; FAS Ch26(2) 5-6; SS I 12, 47; SS III 109; SS VI 9; SS VII 107-108; S42 76.

N

Nāgārjuna (Bodhisattva) 樹 (菩薩)

CH long shu (pu sa) 樹 (菩薩)

SKT nāgārjuna

REF FASVP 101-102.

namo

CH na(n) mo 南

SKT namas

PALI namo

Nirvana 涅槃

CH nie pan 涅槃, ni huan 泥洹

SKT nirvāṇa, mahāparinirvāṇa

PALI nibbāna, mahāparinibbāna

REF VS 429 (4 kinds); UW 157; DFS II 315-316 (3 kinds); DFS VII 1356 (2 kinds); SS I 180-181; SS IV 138-139, 244-245.

Nirvana Sutra 涅槃

SKT Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra

PALI Mahāparinibbāna-suttanta

REF NS (ms).

no self

CH wu wo

SKT anātman

PALI anatta

REF FAS Ch22 141.

0

offerings 供 / 供養

CH gong 供, gong yang 供養

SKT pūjā

PALI pūjā

REF DFS II 288-289; DFS IX 1700-1701; VS 105-107; S42 23-27; UW 55-68, 142-144; Nirvana Sutra lecture on October 27, 1985 by Ven. Master Hua.

One Hundred Dharmas

CH bai fa

SKT śata-dharmāḥ

PALI sata-dhamma

REF HD, esp. 5, 26-29; HS 50; FASP II(3) 44ff.

One Thousand Hands and Eyes

CH qian shou qian yan

SKT sahasrabhujasahasranetra

REF Great Compassion Dharma Transmission Verses; DS 2-5, 24-25; SS V 178-179. VBS

  1. 197 3.

ordination 受具足

CH shou ju zu jie 受具足

SKT upasaṃpadā

PALI upasampadā

REF FAS Ch16 36-37.

outflows 漏

CH lou 漏

SKT āsrava

PALI āsava

REF AS 125; SM IV 44-45 FAS Ch9 10-15.

Pali

CH ba li wen 巴文, ba li yu

SKT pāli

PALI pāli

pāramitā

CH bo luo mi (duo) (), du

SKT pāramitā, pāramī

PALI pāramitā, pārami

REF PS 96-97; VS 7; SM III 8; SS I 9-10.

polluted thoughts 妄想

CH wang xiang 妄想

SKT parikalpa, vikalpa

PALI parikappa, vikappa

REF PS 98-99, 192-193; TT 38; FASP I 87.

Prajñā

CH bo re

SKT Prajñā

PALI Prajñā

REF PS 94-96; DFS X 24-25.

PratyekaBuddha 辟支

CH bi zhi fo 辟支, du jue / jiao 獨覺, yuan jue / jiao

SKT PratyekaBuddha, pratyayaBuddha

PALI paccekaBuddha

REF TD 29-31, DFS II 300-301; FASP II(2) 57-58.

Pure Land

CH jing du 淨

SKT sukhāvatī

REF PS 140-145; FASP I 116f.

Q

Qingliang Chengguan (National Master) 清涼澄 (國)

CH qing liang cheng guan (guo shi) 清涼澄 (國)

REF UW xx-xxi, xxiii; FASVP 15-18; FASP I 221-230; VBS

  1. 35 1.

R

ranking the teachings

CH pan jiao

REF FASVP 51-54; FASP II(1) 156ff; FASP II(2) (entire volume); FASP III (entire volume); BNS 134-35; Dharma Talks in Europe 9ff.

rebirth /

CH sheng , zaisheng

SKT jāti, pratisaṃdhi

PALI jāti, paṭisandhi

REF CL II 81; HS 38; FAS Ch16 44; SS IV 34-36; SS VII 96-97.

recitation of the Buddha's Name

CH nian fo

SKT buddhānusmṛti

PALI buddhānussati

REF LY I 1-47; LY II CPL; AS; FAS Ch22 56; EDR IV 152-153; SS V 126-129; PDS May, 1985, ”Reciting the Name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva“; “Nian fo fa men,” unpublished lecture. December 16, 1985; Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma III 2-41.

refuge with the Three Jewels

CH gui yi san bao

SKT tri-śaraṇa

PALI ti-saraṇa

REF PS 184-l87; UW 13; FAS Ch11 116-118; The True Meaning of Taking Refuge (entire volume).

relics

CH she li

SKT śarīra

PALI sarīra

REF HS 120.

repentance

CH chan hui

SKT vipratisāra, deśanā, kṣamāpaṇa, kaukṛtya

PALI vippaṭisāra, desanā, khamāpanā, kukkucca

REF PS 120, 176-178; WM 9-11; UW 30-31, 144-145; TT 87-96 (verse of repentance of Universal Worthy Bodhisattva); EDR VIII 2-4, 69-73; FASP II(3) 9-10; FAS Ch22 29-34 (”Treasury of Shame“), 35-41 (”Treasury of Remorse“); RH (”Repentance before the Eighty-Eight Buddhas“).

S

Sagely City of Ten Thousand Buddhas 萬佛聖城

CH wan fo sheng cheng 萬佛聖城

Śakra 帝釋

CH di shi 帝釋, shi jia po 釋迦, i.e., yin tuo la 陀][[羅 (Indra)

SKT śakra

PALI sakka

Śākyamuni (Buddha) 釋迦牟 ()

CH shi jia mou ni (fo) 釋迦牟 ()

SKT śākyamuni

PALI sakyamuni

REF SM VI (ms.) DFS VII, XIV (Ch20), III 319; EDR VII 111; A5 8.

samadhi 昧 / /

CH san mei 昧, san mo di , ding

SKT samādhi

PALI samādhi

REF TT 127-8; EDR I 12; EDR VII 60; FAS Ch11 131-133; SS II 121-122; SS VI 13-14.

saṃsāra 流轉 / 死 /

CH liu zhuan 流轉, sheng si 死, lun hui

SKT saṃsāra

PALI saṃsāra

Sangha

CH seng qie

SKT saṅgha, saṃgha

PALI Sangha

REF DFS IV 666-667; PDS “The So-Called Lay Sangha in America.”

Sanskrit

CH fan wen 文, fan yu

SKT saṃskṛta

Śāriputra (Venerable) 弗 ()

CH she li fu (zun zhe) 弗 (), she li zi

SKT śāriputra (sthavira)

PALI sāriputta (thera)

REF AS 69-71; HS 33-34, 120-121; DFS Ch2 107-109; EDR I 219; SS V 62-64.

śāstra

CH lun

SKT śāstra

REF HD 6-8.

Six Desire Heavens

CH liu yu tian

SKT ṣaṭ kāmāvacarā devalokāḥ

REF SS VII 198-207; SPV 25-26, 53-55.

Six Pāramitās /

CH liu bo luo mi , liu du

SKT ṣaṭ pāramitā

PALI pāramitā, pārami

REF LY II 2-3; HS 90-1; DFS II 131ff, 242-254, 350-353; DFS X 5-32, 41-43; EDR V 72-79; 212-220; EDR VIII 132-133, 140-141 (patience); FASP II(1) 112-115; FASP II(2) 36-40; VS 94ff, 102 (photo) (patience – King of Kalinga); S42 38-39 (patience); TT 143-144 (patience); SS I 6-17; AS 4; FAS Ch15 31-33; FAS Ch11 16-27, 31-39, 75-78, 81-83; FAS Ch22 53-96 (Treasury of Giving).

Six Paths of Rebirth 六道輪迴

CH liu dao lun hui 六道輪迴, liu qu 六趣

SKT ṣaḍ-gatyāḥ (shad gati)

REF SS V 135; HD 83; TD 39-54; VBS

  1. 206 7.

Six Principles of the Sagely City of Ten Thousand Buddhas 萬佛聖城

CH wan fo sheng cheng liu da zhong zhi 萬佛聖城

REF Talks on Dharma by the Venerable Master Hua VIII 107-127; ”Chan Talks #1,“ VBS

  1. 205 (June, 1987) 15, 19; ”Chan Talks #9,“ VBS #211 (Dec. 1987) 13-14.

Six Spiritual Powers 神通

CH liu shen tong 神通

SKT abhijñā, ṣaḍ-abhijñāḥ

PALI abhiññā, chaḷabhiññā

REF SPV 26-27; DFS IV 808-815; DFS VII 1292-1297; (outflows) DFS VII 1283-86; S42 35-36 (knowledge of past lies); HS 18; AS 5-6 FAS Ch26(2) 116-118.

Sixth Patriarch's Dharma Jewel Platform Sutra

CH liu zu fa bao tan jing

REF PS.

śramaṇa

CH sha men

SKT śramaṇa

PALI samaṇa

REF SV 44; DS 9; S42 1,3,10; EDR I 159.

śrāvaka 聲聞

CH sheng wen 聲聞

SKT śrāvaka

PALI sāvaka

REF DFS II 299; TD 33; S42 1, 3-9; FASP II(1) 115-116; FASP II(2) 57, 134-135.

suffering

CH ku 苦

SKT duḥkha

PALI dukkha

REF UW 87-88; FASP II(1) 99-101; FAS Ch8 3-13; FAS Ch15 36-37; VBS

  1. 206 6.

Śūraṅgama Mantra

CH leng yan zhou 楞

SKT śūraṅgama-mantra

REF SS VI 89-91; 91-103 (text); 113; TT 124-126; SM I (intro), 32-33, 97-101, SM III 34.

Śūraṅgama Sutra首楞

CH da fo ding shou leng yan jing 大首楞, 10 rolls (T. 845). Translated into Chinese by Paramiti and others in 705 C.E.

SKT śūraṅgama-Sutra

REF SS I-VIII; BRF 18-19; A Sure Sign of the Proper Dharma.

Sutra

CH jing , jing dian

SKT sūtra

PALI sutta

REF SPV 21; HS 11-12; VS 8; S42 80; FASVP 37-38, FASP II(1) 7-26; AS 12-14.

Sutra in Forty-Two Sections 二章

CH si shi er zhang jing 二章

REF S42.

Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva 地藏菩薩

CH di zang pu sa ben yuan jing 地藏菩薩

SKT kṣitigarbha-Bodhisattva-pūrvapraṇidāna-sūtra (no longer extant)*

REF SPV.

T

Tathāgatagarbha 如來

CH ru lai zang 如來

SKT Tathāgatagarbha

Ten Dharma Realms 法界

CH shi fa jie 法界

REF TD; HS 104-5; TT 46-49; FASVP 23-27; VBS

  1. 206 4.

Ten Grounds / Stages of the Bodhisattva Path 菩薩

CH pu sa shi di 菩薩

SKT daśabhūmayaḥ

PALI dasabhūmi

REF FAS Ch26(1), Ch26(2); EDR V 279-280; EDR VI 278; SS VII 62-69; ”Transformation of Consciousness into Wisdom,“ VBS

  1. 176 22; VBS #177 15; VBS #178 14.

Ten Titles of a Buddha

CH fo zhi shi hao

REF FAS Ch7; SPV 121-123.

Ten Wholesome Deeds

CH shi shan

SKT daśa-kuśala-karma-patha, dala-kusalāni

PALI kusala-kamma-patha

REF S42 14-15; DFS X 6; FAS Ch26(2) 4-35.

Theravada Buddhism佛教

CH nan chuan fo jiao 南佛教, shang zuo bu 上座

SKT sthavira-vāda

PALI theravāda

Thirty-two Major Physical Characteristics of a Buddha 二相

CH fo san shi er xiang 二相

SKT dvātriṃśan mahāpuruṣalakṣaṇa, dvātrimśad varalakṣaṇa

PALI dvattiṃsa mahāpurisalakkhaṇa

REF EDR I 189-190; EDR VI 212-213, 215; VS 85-86.

Three Aspects of Learning to Be without Outflows 漏學

CH san wu lou xue / xiao 漏學

REF TT 117ff.

Three Bodies of a Buddha / Three Types of Buddha Bodies

CH fo zhi san shen

SKT trikāya

PALI tikāya

REF PS 188-194; FASP II(3) 74-75; BNS I 11; EDR I 14; FAS Ch24 50-51. VBS

  1. 196 6.

Three Jewels

CH san bao

SKT triratna, ratna-traya

PALI tiratana, ratana-ttaya

Three Poisons

CH san du

SKT akuśala-mūlā

PALI akusala-mūlā

REF PS 4, TD 5-14.

Three Vehicles 三乘

CH san cheng 三乘

SKT triyāna

REF FASP II(1) 248-50,

Three Worlds

CH san jie

SKT triloka, tridhātu

PALI tiloka

REF TT 47; EDR VIII 218-219; FASP II(2) 139-141.

Thus Come One 如來

CH ru lai 如來

SKT Tathāgata

PALI Tathāgata

REF DFS IV 540; VS 141ff; EDR VIII 217-218; TD 26.

Tiantai School

CH Tiantai zong [Jap. tendai]

REF DFS I 1-11; FASP II(1) 196-197.

time

CH shi

SKT kāla

PALI kāla

REF TT 6; EDR I 28-29; UW 219-220, 222; FAS Ch5-6 115-117; FAS Ch9 147-148; SS II 68-69 SS IV 147. 165-167; VS 124.

transference of merit

CH hui xiang

SKT pariṇāmana

PALI pariṇāmana

REF UW 38-39; FAS Ch9 26-28; EDR IV (Ten Transferences); FAS Ch25; RH 71, 82, 146-157, 158-162; SS VII 50-59 (Ten Transferences).

transformation bodies 化身

CH hua shen 化身

SKT nirmāṇakāya

Tripiṭaka

CH san zang

SKT Tripiṭaka

PALI tipiṭaka

REF HS 13, VS 11; UW 3; FASP II(1) 109-111; FAS Ch9 185.

Tripiṭaka Master 法師

CH san zang fa shi 法師

SKT Tripiṭaka-ācārya

PALI tipiṭaka-ācariya

Twelvefold Conditioned Arising 因緣

CH shi er yin yuan 因緣

SKT dvādaśāṅga nidāna, dvādaśāṅga pratītyasamutpāda

PALI nidāna, paṭicca-samuppāda

REF HS 61-65; SS IV 32-35; TD 31; FAS Ch26 “Fifth Ground” 52ff, ”Sixth Ground“ 70-89; TD 9-10; AS 3.

Two Vehicles 二

CH er cheng

SKT dviyāna

U

Universal Worthy (Bodhisattva) 普賢 (菩薩)

CH pu xian (pu sa) 普賢 (菩薩)

SKT samantabhadra

REF UW 5; SS V 65-68.

upāsaka

CH you po sai 優賽, jin shi nan 近事男

SKT upāsaka

PALI upāsaka

upāsikā 優

CH you po yi 優夷, jin shi nü 近事女

SKT upāsikā

PALI upāsikā

V

vajra 金剛

CH jin gang 金剛

SKT vajra

PALI vajira

REF VS 3, 81.

Vajra (Diamond) Prajñā Pāramitā Sutra 金剛

CH jin gang bo re bo luo mi duo jing 金剛, jin gang jing 金剛

SKT vajra-Prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra

REF VS.

Vasubandhu (Bodhisattva) 菩薩

CH shi qin (pu sa) 菩薩, tian qin (pu sa) 菩薩

SKT vasubandhu

REF HD 9-12;UW 1-3; VBS

  1. 20 1-2.

vegetarianism

CH su shi zhu yi

REF FASP II 29-31; FAS Ch11 214-224; FAS Ch22 59-63; DFS 789-791; LY I 112-114, 116-118; BNS I (Third Minor Precept) 118-119, BRF 63-65; CL I 1-4, 83; CL II 1-3, 5, 7, 9, 63 (=BNS third minor), 142-144; SS III 78-79; SS IV 40-42; SS VI 20-23; SS VII 4-8; BNS I 120-122 (5 allium); DFS IV 790-792; PDS (Dec. 1984) 2, ”Verses on a Simple and Practical Way to be Kind to Other Living Beings.“

Vinaya /

CH jie , pi nai ye

SKT vinaya

PALI vinaya

REF FASP II(1) 77-78, 86-96; SV 10.

Vinaya School 律宗

CH lü zong 律宗

vows

CH yuan

SKT praṇidhāna

PALI paṇidhāna

REF DFS VII 1195 1197; UW xiii; FAS Ch22 154.

W

Way-[[place 道場

CH dao chang 道場

SKT bodhimaṇḍa

PALI bodhimaṇḍa

REF SS VI 70-77.

world systems 世界

CH shi jie 世界

SKT lokadhātu

PALI lokadhātu

REF EDR VI 206-210, 260-261; EDR VIII 215-216; FAS Ch5(1) 14, 102, 107, 109; FAS Ch5-6 frontis., 48.

X

Xuanzang (Tripiṭaka Master) (法師)

CH xuan zang (san zang fa shi) (法師)

REF HS 13-14; HD 15-19 FASP II(2) 80, 82.

Xuyun (Chan Master) 虛雲 (禪師)

CH xu yun (chan shi) 虛雲 (禪師)

REF PB I and II; VBS

  1. 17 (Aug. 1971) 1-2.

Y

yojana 由旬

CH you xun 由旬

SKT yojana

PALI yojana

Z

Zhiyi (Venerable) 顗 (法師)

CH zhi yi (fa shi) 顗 (法師)

REF FASP II(2) 1-4; DFS I 1,15,17-18,35,53,55; VBS

  1. 129 (Feb. 1981) 1.

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