package_manager

Package manager

Kubernetes - K8S - Helm

Docker Hub


Programming languages

Golang

Java: Gradle, Maven, Ant

Maven

Gradle

Ant

NPM - Node Package Manager for JavaScript

NuGet for C# .NET

Python

Anaconda

  • Anaconda: a package manager for open data science platform of the Python and R

pip

RubyGems

Operating Systems

Linux

RPM and yum for RedHat - CentOS

dpkg apt-get for Ubuntu - Debian

Snap App Store for Ubuntu - Debian and other Linux

Pacman for Arch Linux

Windows

Chocolatey

Windows Store

macOS

Homebrew

Mac App Store

iOS App Store

Android

Google Play

Amazon Appstore


“A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.” Fair Use Source: Package manager


This is a list of software package management systems, categorized first by package format (binary, source code, hybrid) and then by operating system family.

Binary packages

The following package management systems distribute apps in binary package form; i.e., all apps are compiled and ready to be installed and use.

Unix-like

Linux

  • apk-tools (apk): Alpine Package Keeper, the package manager for Alpine Linux.
  • dpkg: Originally used by Debian and now by Ubuntu. Uses the .deb format and was the first to have a widely known dependency resolution tool, APT. The ncurses-based front-end for APT, aptitude, is also a popular package manager for Debian-based systems.
  • Entropy: used by and created for Sabayon Linux. It works with binary packages that are bzip2-compressed tar archives (file extension:
    .tbz2

    ), that are created using Entropy itself, from tbz2 binaries produced by Portage from ebuilds, a type of specialized shell script.

  • Flatpak: a containerized/sandboxed packaging format previously known as xdg-app.
  • GNU Guix: Used by the GNU System. It is based on the Nix package manager with Guile Scheme APIs and specializes in providing exclusively free software.

macOS (OS X)

  • Mac App Store: Official digital distribution platform for OS X apps. Part of OS X 10.7 and available as an update for OS X 10.6.
  • Homebrew: Package manager for OS X, based on Git
  • Fink: A port of dpkg, it is one of the earliest package managers for OS X.
  • MacPorts: Formerly known as DarwinPorts, based on FreeBSD Ports (as is OS X itself)
  • Joyent: Provides a repository of 10,000+ binary packages for OS X based on pkgsrc<ref>

    </ref>

  • Zero Install (0install): Cross-platform packaging and distributions software. Uses GnuPG and GTK+ on OS X.
  • Steam: A cross-platform video game distribution, licensing and social gameplay platform, developed and maintained by Valve. Used to shop for, download, install, update, uninstall and back up video games. Works on Windows NT, OS X and Linux.
  • pkgutil package management tool included in MacOS

BSD

  • dpkg: Used as part of Debian GNU/kFreeBSD
  • OpenPKG: Cross-platform package management system based on rpm
  • TrueOS uses files with the .pbi (Push Button Installer) filename extension which, when double-clicked, bring up an installation wizard program. Each PBI is self-contained and uses de-duplicated private dependencies to avoid version conflicts. An autobuild system tracks the FreeBSD ports collection and generates new PBIs daily. TrueOS also uses the FreeBSD pkg binary package system; new packages are built approximately every two weeks from both a stable and rolling release branch of the FreeBSD ports tree.
  • PKGNG: now standard; available in FreeBSD and PC-BSD since 9.1,<ref>

    </ref> with support for binary packages

Solaris,illumos

Mobile

Android

iOS

Windows{{anchor|Microsoft_Windows}}

  • Windows Store: Official app store for Metro-style apps on Windows NT and Windows Phone. As of Windows 10, it distributes video games, films and music as well.
  • Windows Phone Store: Former official app store for Windows Phone. Now superseded by Windows Store.
  • Xbox Live: A cross-platform video game distribution platform by Microsoft. Works on Windows NT, Windows Phone and Xbox. Initially called Games for Windows – Live on Windows 7 and earlier. On Windows 10, the distribution function is taken over by Windows Store.
  • Cygwin: Free and open-source software repository for Windows NT. Provides many Linux tools and an installation tool with package manager.
  • Ninite: Proprietary package manager for Windows NT
  • NuGet: A Microsoft-official free and open-source package manager for Windows, available as a plugin for Visual Studio, and extendable from the command-line.
  • Chocolatey: Open-source decentralized package manager for Windows in the spirit of Yum and apt-get. Usability wrapper for NuGet
  • pacman: MSYS2-ported Windows version of the Arch Linux package manager.
  • wpkg: Open-source package manager that handles Debian packages on Windows. Started as a clone of dpkg, and has many apt-get like features too.
  • Zero Install (0install): Cross-platform packaging and distributions software. Uses .NET Framework on Windows NT.
  • Steam: A cross-platform video game distribution, licensing and social gameplay platform, developed and maintained by Valve. Used to shop for, download, install, update, uninstall and back up video games. Works on Windows NT, OS X and Linux.
  • Uplay: A cross-platform video game distribution, licensing and social gameplay platform, developed and maintained by Ubisoft. Used to shop for, download, install and update video games. Works on Windows NT and Windows Phone, as well as PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Wii U, iOS and Android.

z/OS

Source code-based

The following package management systems distribute the source code of their apps. Either the user must know how to compile the packages, or they come with a script that automates the compilation process. For example, in GoboLinux a recipe file contains information on how to download, unpack, compile and install a package using its Compile tool. In both cases, the user must provide the computing power and time needed to compile the app, and is legally responsible for the consequences of compiling the package.

  • apt-build is used by distributions which use deb packages, allowing automatic compiling and installation of software in a deb source repository.
  • Sorcery is Sourcemage GNU/Linux's bash based package management program that automatically downloads software from their original site and compiles and installs it on the local machine.
  • ABS is used by Arch Linux to automate binary packages building from source or even other binary archives, with automatic download and dependency checking.

macOS (OS X)

  • fink, for OS X, derives partially from dpkg/apt and partially from ports.
  • MacPorts, formerly called DarwinPorts, originated from the OpenDarwin project.
  • Homebrew, with close Git integration.

Hybrid systems

  • Nix package manager: Package manager that manages software in a purely functional way, featuring multi-user support, atomic upgrades and rollbacks. Allows multiple versions or variants of a software to be installed at the same time. It has support for macOS and is cross-distribution in its Linux support.
  • Portage and emerge are used by Gentoo Linux, Funtoo Linux, and Sabayon Linux. It is inspired by the BSD ports system and uses text based “ebuilds” to automatically download, customize, build, and update packages from source code. It has automatic dependency checking and allows multiple versions of a software package to be installed into different “slots” on the same system. Portage also employs “use flags” to allow the user to fully customize a software build to suit the needs of their platform in an automated fashion. While source code distribution and customization is the preferred methodology, some larger packages that would take many hours to compile on a typical desktop computer are also offered as pre-compiled binaries in order to ease installation.
  • Upkg: Package management and build system based on Mono and XML specifications. Used by paldo and previously by ExTiX Linux.
  • MacPorts (for OS X)
  • NetBSD's pkgsrc works on several Unix-like operating systems.
  • Collective Knowledge Framework is a cross-platform package and workflow framework with JSON API that can download binary packages or build them from sources for Linux, Windows, MacOS and Android platforms<ref>

    </ref>

Meta package managers

The following unify package management for several or all Linux and sometimes Unix variants. These, too, are based on the concept of a recipe file.

  • AppImage (previously klik and PortableLinuxApps) aims to provide an easy way to get software packages for most major distributions without the dependency problems so common in many other package formats.
  • Autopackage uses .package files.
  • Zero Install installs each package into its own directory and uses environment variables to let each program find its libraries. Package and dependency information is downloaded directly from the software authors' pages in an XML format, similar to an RSS feed.
  • PackageKit is a set of utilities and libraries for creating applications that can manage packages across multiple package managers using back-ends to call the correct program.

Proprietary software systems

A wide variety of package management systems are in common use today by proprietary software operating systems, handling the installation of both proprietary and free packages.

Application-level Dependency managers

See also

References

External sites

package_manager.txt · Last modified: 2020/11/20 01:12 (external edit)

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