Infinity
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See also Infinite, Infinitely, Boundless, Endless, Immeasurability vs Measurability, Measurement, Measurable, Measure, Measuring, Measured
- Snippet from Wikipedia: Infinity
Infinity is something which is boundless, endless, or larger than any natural number. It is often denoted by the infinity symbol $\infty$.
From the time of the ancient Greeks, the philosophical nature of infinity has been the subject of many discussions among philosophers. In the 17th century, with the introduction of the infinity symbol and the infinitesimal calculus, mathematicians began to work with infinite series and what some mathematicians (including l'Hôpital and Bernoulli) regarded as infinitely small quantities, but infinity continued to be associated with endless processes. As mathematicians struggled with the foundation of calculus, it remained unclear whether infinity could be considered as a number or magnitude and, if so, how this could be done. At the end of the 19th century, Georg Cantor enlarged the mathematical study of infinity by studying infinite sets and infinite numbers, showing that they can be of various sizes. For example, if a line is viewed as the set of all of its points, their infinite number (i.e., the cardinality of the line) is larger than the number of integers. In this usage, infinity is a mathematical concept, and infinite mathematical objects can be studied, manipulated, and used just like any other mathematical object.
The mathematical concept of infinity refines and extends the old philosophical concept, in particular by introducing infinitely many different sizes of infinite sets. Among the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, on which most of modern mathematics can be developed, is the axiom of infinity, which guarantees the existence of infinite sets. The mathematical concept of infinity and the manipulation of infinite sets are widely used in mathematics, even in areas such as combinatorics that may seem to have nothing to do with them. For example, Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem implicitly relies on the existence of Grothendieck universes, very large infinite sets, for solving a long-standing problem that is stated in terms of elementary arithmetic.
In physics and cosmology, whether the universe is spatially infinite or not, is an open question.
- Snippet from Wikipedia: Measurement
Measurement is the quantification of attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. In other words, measurement is a process of determining how large or small a physical quantity is as compared to a basic reference quantity of the same kind. The scope and application of measurement are dependent on the context and discipline. In natural sciences and engineering, measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, which is consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioural sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales.
Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, science, technology and quantitative research in many disciplines. Historically, many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields. Often these were achieved by local agreements between trading partners or collaborators. Since the 18th century, developments progressed towards unifying, widely accepted standards that resulted in the modern International System of Units (SI). This system reduces all physical measurements to a mathematical combination of seven base units. The science of measurement is pursued in the field of metrology.
Measurement is defined as the process of comparison of an unknown quantity with a known or standard quantity.
Four Immeasurables: Immeasurables (Skt. caturapramāṇa, Brahmavihara; Sublime Attitudes, literally “Abodes of Brahma”) (Pāli: cattāri brahmavihārā) are a series of Four Buddhist Virtues and the Meditation Practices made to cultivate them. Also known as the Four Immeasurables (Pāli: appamaññā) or Four Unlimited Minds, Four Infinite Minds (Chinese: 四無量心)
1. Loving-Kindness, Love, Big Love or Benevolence (mettā) - “May all living beings may have happiness and its causes.”
2. Compassion (karuṇā) - “May all living beings may be free from suffering and its causes.
3. Sympathetic Joy or Empathetic Joy (muditā) - “May all living beings may remain happy and their happiness may increase evermore.”
4. Equanimity (upekkhā - 1. Renunciation, Letting Go, Detachment, Equanimity) - “May all beings may be free from the attitude of attachment to some and aversion to others.” – “It's easy to end all suffering. Simply accept everything with ease and let go completely.” If you can't remember that he says just remember ”Let go completely“. – from the Venerable Buddhist Master Shen-Kai - Founder of Jen Chen Buddhism (Buddhahood Lineage World Humanity Vehicle)
Awesome Immeasurable. (navbar_immeasurables - see also navbar_buddhist_masters, navbar_buddhism, navbar_noble_truths, navbar_paramita)
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