Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription systems for Chinese, Tibetan, Sanskrit, Hindi, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese and other Asian Languages

Compare with the Wylie transliteration Romanization of Tibetan language.

Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription systems include:

“Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to accurately reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ widely as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation.”

“Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly. Wylie transliteration was designed to precisely transcribe Tibetan script as written, which led to its acceptance in academic and historical studies. It is not intended to represent the pronunciation of Tibetan words.

Fair Use Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wylie_transliteration

See Also:

Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription Romanization of Tibetan language

Compare with other systems of Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription such as the Wylie transliteration Romanization of Tibetan language and the Hanyu Pinyin Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 汉语拼音 – 漢語拼音.

“The THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription of Standard Tibetan (or THL Phonetic Transcription for short) is a system for the phonetic rendering of the Tibetan language. It was created by David Germano and Nicolas Tournadre and was published on 12 December 2003. It is essentially a simplified form of the Tournadre Phonetic System, which is used by Tournadre in his Tibetan-language textbooks. THL (formerly THDL) stands for the “Tibetan and Himalayan Library” project, which is hosted at the University of Virginia. Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/THL_Simplified_Phonetic_Transcription

“Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to accurately reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ widely as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation.”

“Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly. Wylie transliteration was designed to precisely transcribe Tibetan script as written, which led to its acceptance in academic and historical studies. It is not intended to represent the pronunciation of Tibetan words.Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wylie_transliteration

External Sites:

  • https://www.thlib.org/reference/transliteration – The Transliteration and Transcription of Tibetan (Tibetan & Himalayan Library), THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription of Standard Tibetan, THL Extended Wylie Transliteration of Tibetan

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Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Wylie transliteration Romanization of Tibetan language

Compare with other systems of Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription such as the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription Romanization of Tibetan language and the Hanyu Pinyin Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 汉语拼音 – 漢語拼音.

“The Wylie transliteration system is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter. It bears the name of American tibetologist Turrell V. Wylie, who described the scheme in an article, A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription, published in 1959.[1] It has subsequently become a standard transliteration scheme in Tibetan language studies, especially in the United States.”

“Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to accurately reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ widely as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation.”

“Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly. Wylie transliteration was designed to precisely transcribe Tibetan script as written, which led to its acceptance in academic and historical studies. It is not intended to represent the pronunciation of Tibetan words.

Fair Use Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wylie_transliteration

See Also:

Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing

Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing

Chinese (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyinHànyǔ; literally: ‘Han language’; or especially though not exclusively for written Chinese: 中文; Zhōngwén; ‘Chinese writing’) is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people (around 16% of the world’s population) speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

See also Wade-Giles Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 威翟式拼音

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese汉语拼音traditional Chinese漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.” Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinyin

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See also:

Mandarin Standard Chinese language -普通话 / 普通話 Pǔtōnghuà Pu Tong Hua – 国语 / 國語 Guóyǔ Guo Yu – 华语 / 華語 Huáyǔ Hua Yu

Language, Human Languages, Polyglot, Buddhism Glossary, Asian History.

Cloud Monk skillset, Chinese Medicine.

Wade-Giles Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 威翟式拼音

See also Hanyu Pinyin Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 汉语拼音 – 漢語拼音

Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese (Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing). It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles‘s Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.”

Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century. Wade-Giles is based on Beijing dialect, whereas Nanking dialect-based romanization systems were in common use until the late 19th century. Both were used in postal romanizations (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been mostly replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system, with exceptions for some proper nouns. Taiwan has kept the Wade–Giles romanization of some geographical names (for example Kaohsiung) and many personal names (for example Chiang Ching-kuo).” Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wade-Giles

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See also:

Mandarin Standard Chinese language -普通话 / 普通話 Pǔtōnghuà Pu Tong Hua – 国语 / 國語 Guóyǔ Guo Yu – 华语 / 華語 Huáyǔ Hua Yu

Language, Human Languages, Polyglot, Buddhism Glossary, Asian History.

Cloud Monk skillset, Chinese Medicine.

Hanyu Pinyin Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 汉语拼音 – 漢語拼音

See also Wade-Giles Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 威翟式拼音

Compare with other systems of Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription such as the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription Romanization of Tibetan language and the Wylie transliteration Romanization of Tibetan language.

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese汉语拼音traditional Chinese漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese (Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing) in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.”

“The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times.[2] The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982,[3] and was followed by the United Nations in 1986. ” Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinyin

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See also:

Mandarin Standard Chinese language -普通话 / 普通話 Pǔtōnghuà Pu Tong Hua – 国语 / 國語 Guóyǔ Guo Yu – 华语 / 華語 Huáyǔ Hua Yu

Language, Human Languages, Polyglot, Buddhism Glossary, Asian History.

Cloud Monk skillset, Chinese Medicine.

Nations

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Pali language

The ancient language of Theravada Buddhism, Mantras, Buddhism, Buddhist Ayurveda.

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Language, Human Languages, Polyglot, Buddhism Glossary, Asian History.

See Cloud Monk skillset, Buddhist Sanskrit, Ayurvedic Sanskrit.

Korean language – South Korean: 한국어/韓國語 Hangugeo – North Korean: 조선말/朝鮮말 Chosŏnmal

“The Korean language (South Korean한국어/韓國語 Hangugeo; North Korean조선말/朝鮮말 Chosŏnmal) is an East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people.[3] It is a member of the Koreanic language family and is the official and national language of both Koreas: North Korea and South Korea, with different standardized official forms used in each country. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of Jilin province, China. It is also spoken in parts of SakhalinUkraine and Central Asia.[4][5]

Historical and modern linguists classify Korean as a language isolate;[6][7][8][9][10][11] however, it does have a few extinct relatives, which together with Korean itself and the Jeju language (spoken in the Jeju Province and considered somewhat distinct) form the Koreanic language family. The linguistic homeland of Korean is suggested to be somewhere in Manchuria.” [12] Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_language

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Tibetan people and culture

For the people and culture of Tibet, see Tibetan. For the language, see Standard Tibetan language – Lhasa Tibetan – Bod skad / Böké – Lha-sa’i skad / Lhaséké

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Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters