Unix

See also Linux

UNIX

Ken Thompson (b. 1943), Dennis Ritchie (1941–2011), Malcolm Douglas McIlroy (b. 1932)

“After Bell Labs decided to pull out of the Multics project, Bell computer scientists Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Malcolm McIlroy, and others decided to build a modern, streamlined operating system with a fraction of the resources that MIT and Honeywell were throwing into Multics.”

“Bell Labs had a five-year-old PDP-7 computer from DEC that wasn’t being otherwise used, so in 1969, Ken Thompson wrote an operating system for it that would implement the core Multics ideas, including a hierarchical file system with a root directory that could contain both files and other directories, a “shell” program that allowed the user to type commands that could support any number of directories and files within other directories, and the ability to expand the system with user-written commands.”

“By 1972, the system had a name—UNICS—a play of the word eunuch (a castrated man) and Multics. UNICS was a castrated Multics! Perhaps a bit childish, the name was changed to UNIX (nobody quite remembers by whom), and the new name stuck.”

“UNIX was rewritten into the newly invented C programming language in 1972. Although the minimalist operating system lacked many features found on more sophisticated operating systems, UNIX offered just enough features to let researchers and businesses develop their own software.

UNIX got a huge boost in 1983 when the University of California, Berkeley, added support for the internet’s transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) networking protocol to the operating system. Now any school or business that wanted to get on the internet could do so with a network connection and a computer running the Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) of UNIX, which also came with an email server, a mail client, and even games. Soon workstations were being created specifically for the purpose of running the operating system.”

“UNIX survives today as the operating system in the Apple Macintosh and the iPhone.”

SEE ALSO Utility Computing (1969), C Programming Language (1972), IPv4 Flag Day (1983), Linux Kernel (1991)

Photograph of Ken Thompson (sitting) and Dennis Ritchie (standing) at the PDP-11.

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Linux Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM)

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  • https://superuser.com/questions/tagged/windows
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  • https://serverfault.com/search?q=ssd
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  • https://github.com/search?q=Python+3.7.3
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  • https://quora.com/search?q=ssd
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  • https://unix.stackexchange.com/search?q=ssd
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See Also:

CentOS Linux – Community Enterprise Operating System

“Community Enterprise Operating System (CentOS) has been around since 2004. It is nearly an exact duplicate of RHEL, a very popular enterprise Linux distribution. While obtaining RHEL requires a paid subscription via Red Hat, CentOS is free and a great study resource for the CompTIA Linux+ certification exam.

You can obtain a CentOS Linux distribution ISO from the CentOS website at https://centos.org. Be aware that this distribution, like many others, comes in multiple flavors. We recommend you obtain the CentOS version 7.* Everything ISO.”

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DistroWatch.com

DistroWatch is a website which provides news, popularity rankings, and other general information about various Linux distributions as well as other free software/open source Unix-like operating systems such as OpenSolaris, MINIX and BSD. It now contains information on several hundred distributions.


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Linux distributions

Distro:

RankDistributionHPD*
1MX Linux4739
2Manjaro2756
3Mint2044
4Ubuntu1438
5Debian1431
6elementary1384
7Solus1139
8Fedora1015
9Zorin845
10openSUSE818
11deepin809
12antiX735
13KDE neon637
14CentOS593
15Arch577
16ArcoLinux568
17ReactOS562
18PCLinuxOS541
19Pop!_OS489
20Mageia479
21Parrot430
22Kali427
23Puppy423
24Lite421
25Lubuntu375
26FreeBSD363
27SparkyLinux359
28Peppermint355
29Slackware339
30Alpine338
31SmartOS325
32Tails321
33Xubuntu306
34Q4OS300
35Red Hat289
36Ubuntu MATE279
37Kubuntu263
38ArchBang262
39Ubuntu Kylin262
40Voyager262
41Trident253
42Gentoo238
43Void237
44ClearOS233
45Nitrux230
464MLinux228
47Kodachi225
48Endless224
49Archman222
50Feren222
51Netrunner221
52Bluestar213
53Emmabuntüs212
54KNOPPIX206
55OpenMandriva204
56Ultimate203
57DragonFly200
58Android-x86199
59Condres195
60Devuan193
61LXLE189
62Sabayon188
63GhostBSD184
64ROSA183
65TrueOS182
66BlackArch179
67Bodhi172
68KaOS172
69Ubuntu Budgie171
70NixOS168
71Oracle157
72EasyOS155
73NuTyX154
74Clonezilla153
75Ubuntu Studio153
76ExTiX151
77AV Linux150
78OpenBSD150
79Slax147
80BunsenLabs145
81Septor145
82Robolinux142
83Raspbian for the Raspberry Pi141
84ArchLabs139
85BackBox139
86Tiny Core139
87Chakra137
88SteamOS137
89Artix136
90Clear136
91Fatdog64135
92Haiku135
93Whonix134
94Trisquel132
95Qubes129
96Obarun128
97Vector128
98Enso126
99HardenedBSD123
100LibreELEC118

Accurate ranking as of August 31, 2019 from DistroWatch.com

See also: Embedded Linux

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