Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription systems for Chinese, Tibetan, Sanskrit, Hindi, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese and other Asian Languages

Compare with the Wylie transliteration Romanization of Tibetan language.

Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription systems include:

“Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to accurately reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ widely as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation.”

“Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly. Wylie transliteration was designed to precisely transcribe Tibetan script as written, which led to its acceptance in academic and historical studies. It is not intended to represent the pronunciation of Tibetan words.

Fair Use Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wylie_transliteration

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Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing

Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing

Chinese (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyinHànyǔ; literally: ‘Han language’; or especially though not exclusively for written Chinese: 中文; Zhōngwén; ‘Chinese writing’) is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people (around 16% of the world’s population) speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

See also Wade-Giles Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 威翟式拼音

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese汉语拼音traditional Chinese漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.” Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinyin

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Mandarin Standard Chinese language -普通话 / 普通話 Pǔtōnghuà Pu Tong Hua – 国语 / 國語 Guóyǔ Guo Yu – 华语 / 華語 Huáyǔ Hua Yu

Language, Human Languages, Polyglot, Buddhism Glossary, Asian History.

Cloud Monk skillset, Chinese Medicine.

Wade-Giles Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 威翟式拼音

See also Hanyu Pinyin Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 汉语拼音 – 漢語拼音

Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese (Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing). It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles‘s Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.”

Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century. Wade-Giles is based on Beijing dialect, whereas Nanking dialect-based romanization systems were in common use until the late 19th century. Both were used in postal romanizations (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been mostly replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system, with exceptions for some proper nouns. Taiwan has kept the Wade–Giles romanization of some geographical names (for example Kaohsiung) and many personal names (for example Chiang Ching-kuo).” Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wade-Giles

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Mandarin Standard Chinese language -普通话 / 普通話 Pǔtōnghuà Pu Tong Hua – 国语 / 國語 Guóyǔ Guo Yu – 华语 / 華語 Huáyǔ Hua Yu

Language, Human Languages, Polyglot, Buddhism Glossary, Asian History.

Cloud Monk skillset, Chinese Medicine.

Hanyu Pinyin Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 汉语拼音 – 漢語拼音

See also Wade-Giles Romanization transliteration for Chinese language – 威翟式拼音

Compare with other systems of Romanization-Transliteration-Transcription such as the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription Romanization of Tibetan language and the Wylie transliteration Romanization of Tibetan language.

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese汉语拼音traditional Chinese漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese (Chinese language – 汉语/漢語; Hànyǔ – Written Chinese 中文 Zhōngwén – Chinese writing) in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.”

“The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times.[2] The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982,[3] and was followed by the United Nations in 1986. ” Fair Use Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinyin

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Mandarin Standard Chinese language -普通话 / 普通話 Pǔtōnghuà Pu Tong Hua – 国语 / 國語 Guóyǔ Guo Yu – 华语 / 華語 Huáyǔ Hua Yu

Language, Human Languages, Polyglot, Buddhism Glossary, Asian History.

Cloud Monk skillset, Chinese Medicine.

Nations

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

South Asia

Fair Use Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Asia

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Laos

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Malaysia

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Singapore

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

  1. Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India (Part of India east of Siliguri Corridor), VietnamLaosCambodiaThailandMyanmar and West Malaysia.
  2. Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of IndiaIndonesiaEast MalaysiaSingapore, the PhilippinesEast TimorBruneiChristmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) IslandsTaiwan is also included in this grouping by many anthropologists.”[5] Fair Use Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southeast_Asia

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Asia, Asian History, Buddhism Glossary, Three Refuges: 1. Buddhas, 2. Dharma: SutrasShastrasVinayaTantras, Buddhist Bibliography, 3. Sangha: BodhisattvasHistoric Buddhist MastersModern Buddhist Masters